House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations declined across much of their global range in the late 20th century. Most research examining this decline is conducted in the species' native European range, but Europe encompasses a small portion of the species' current distribution. House Sparrow population trends in the United States and Canada, and the potential mechanisms driving these trends, remain relatively unexplored. We use 21 years of data from Project FeederWatch, a large-scale citizen science project, to investigate House Sparrow population trends in North America. We found winter flocks in urbanized areas were larger than flocks in rural areas, with widespread spatial heterogeneity in local population trends. Despite greater abundance in developed areas, House Sparrow populations declined in developed areas from 1995 to 2016 while remaining stable in rural areas. House Sparrow population declines coincide with an increase in populations and expansion of the winter distributions of Accipiter hawks, which are known predators of House Sparrows. However, we do not find a direct connection between the presence of Accipiter hawks at count sites and House Sparrow population declines in winter. These results expand our knowledge of widespread House Sparrow declines to North America and provide context for continuing research on House Sparrow declines in the introduced range.

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