The Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia) has a broad distribution, occurring in a variety of Atlantic and Pacific coastal and island habitats from North America to Peru and Brazil. This shorebird is considered “Vulnerable” in Brazil, but there is little knowledge regarding the species’ reproductive status, abundance, and distribution in South America. We conducted monthly censuses September 2011–September 2012 and January 2016–December 2017 in different habitats of a 10 km beach transect in the Bacia Potiguar region of northeastern Brazil to address this lack of basic information about the species. Our results indicate considerable variation in abundance, with 1–53 individuals/survey, a greater tendency to be found in mudflat habitats, and breeding in June–December. This information will help to recognize the Bacia Potiguar as an important breeding area for Wilson's Plover in Brazil, provide essential baseline knowledge regarding seasonal abundance and reproductive status of this vulnerable shorebird species, and inform conservation planning for this species in the region.

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