The breeding biology and ecology of the Little Tinamou (Crypturellus soui) is poorly known due to its secretive habits and cryptic coloration. We used radio telemetry and temperature data-loggers to monitor radio-tagged tinamous and nests in the subtropical wet forest life zone in a protected rural site near Cali, Colombia, between February 2013 and March 2015. Population density was higher on a transect in continuous primary forest than in 3 transects in second-growth forest fragments. Peak breeding occurred during the main rainy season of September–December. Simultaneous female and male home range overlap during incubation indicates behavioral monogamy in 4 radio-tagged pairs. The absence of female home range overlap with that of an incubating male suggests an instance of polygynandry. Male home range size was greatest prior to breeding (3.76 ± 2.31 ha, minimum convex polygon) and decreased in size during the egg and chick stages. Parental care was provided only by males, which displayed moderately high nest attendance during incubation (77.5% ± 4.5% on nest per 24 h period) and while foraging with chicks after hatching. Females vocalized more frequently and with different vocalizations than males. Females were larger than males in body mass (by 8.8%), body length (by 9.5%), tarsus (by 9.4%), and wing (by 9.4%). Our sexual dimorphism findings are consistent with female defense of territory. Adults were diet generalists, 72% ± 29% of the fecal samples examined contained material of 9 plant species and 9% ± 13% of the fecal samples contained pieces of 4 orders of arthropods.

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