Black-faced Spoonbills (Platalea minor) are listed as Endangered. More than 50% of these spoonbills winter regularly on the southwest coast of Taiwan. We used long-term population trend models to analyze 3 different datasets: (1) a biweekly census of 16 sampling sites in 3 habitat regions in southwest Taiwan 2007–2022, (2) a country-wide census of spoonbills 1991–2022, and (3) a worldwide census 2003–2022. From the biweekly monitoring data from southwest Taiwan, we found divergent spoonbill population trends and rates of habitat use in the 3 different habitat regions surveyed: a 2.8% per year increase in the number of birds wintering in the newly established Budai-Beimen Wetlands, a 2.6% per year decrease in the Cigu Salt Pan-Zengwun Estuary population, and a stable population in Sihcao-Yongan Wetlands. The result of biweekly monitoring data and the population time series analysis showed that in the late wintering period of each year, the combined habitat use rate was only 75.1% of the previous year’s, a rate driven down by the Cigu Salt Pan-Zengwun Estuary population whose habitat use rate is only 59.0%. From the 1991–2022 Taiwan country-wide and global datasets, we found a linear trend showing the Black-billed Spoonbill population has increased at a rate of 10.4% and 10.3% per year, respectively. During the most recent 15 years, the population growth rate of this bird has significantly slowed down worldwide, with a rate of increase of 8.4% per year. We consider that maintaining the biodiversity of salt pan wetlands for protecting Black-faced Spoonbills is pivotal.

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